Mechanism of Glucose Water as a Neural Injection: A Perspective on Neuroinflammation
Yung-Tsan Wu, Yen-Po Chen, King Hei Stanley Lam, Kenneth Dean Reeves, Jui-An Lin and Cheng-Yi Kuo
Life 2022, 12(6), 832
The entrapment of peripheral nerves is associated with chronic neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain, and perineural injection therapy with glucose is emerging as an effective treatment for peripheral entrapment neuropathy. However, the mechanism underlying the pharmacological effect of glucose on nerves remains unclear. One of the hypothesized mechanisms is that glucose reduces neurogenic inflammation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high glucose concentrations on cytokine-induced neuroinflammation in vitro. Human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were challenged with 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 16 h and subsequently treated with different glucose concentrations (0–25 mM) for 24 h. Cell viability was evaluated using the diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and proinflammatory cytokine levels were assessed using ELISA and quantitative PCR. In addition, mRNA levels of NF-κB and cyclooxygenase-2 were analyzed using quantitative PCR. Exposure to 10 ng/mL TNF-α resulted in decreased viability of SH-SY5Y cells and significant upregulation of IL-6, IL-1β, NF-κB, and cyclooxygenase-2. Subsequent exposure to high glucose levels (25 mM) markedly reduced the upregulation of IL-6, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2, and NF-κB, and restored the functional metabolism of SH-SY5Y cells, compared with that of the normal glucose control. Our findings suggest that high glucose concentrations can mitigate TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, and metabolic dysfunction.